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Printing began with the invention of typography and the flat wooden printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in the 15th century, the form of which was preserved for about half a century. The idea of applying pressure to a flat surface by a person using ink and a press prevailed as the most common way of printing on paper. The printing form was placed on a stable plate, upright or horizontal. With each movement of the press, another metal plate pressed a sheet of paper onto the form and a page was printed.

After the Industrial Revolution (1760-1840), the form and material of printing presses started to change. The need to increase production and reduce the time and fatigue of craftsmen led to several attempts to improve the type presses. It was then that the first iron printing presses were made, which became very popular, some with complicated pedal systems and others easier to use, which did not increase the speed of production but simplified the operation.

In the mid-19th century, with the growth of printing presses, needs changed, making it practical to have presses that were small, light and easy to use. When using these, the form was "locked" in an iron frame and the printing plate pressed it horizontally while rotating. The form was inked by rollers while the paper was still changed by the operator.

In the 20th century foot-powered, then steam-powered and finally electric-powered printing presses were manufactured.

Updated: 29-03-2023
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